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Craniocerebral trauma (CCT)

GEROPHARM pays considerable attention to the regulation of drug safety. Currently, the company has the pharmacovigilance system which functions in accordance with international requirements and regulatory requirements for the Russian Federation. Employees collect data on the found adverse reactions that occur when taking medicinal preparations with marketing authorization holder being GEROPHARM.

After treatment course is over the patient should stay under supervision of a physician, later repeated courses of neurometabolic and vascular therapy may be necessary from 2 to 4 times a year.

During at least 3 months after CCT the patients are not allowed to drink alcohol and to perform strenuous physical labor.

Apart from traditional treatment methods it is useful to receive a few courses of reflexotherapy (needle therapy), massage, physiotherapy (therapeutic exercises, hydrotherapy, etc.) that along with drug therapy can have a pronounced effect and contribute to more rapid recovery.

In general, all practical recommendations depend on CCT consequences. An injury to cervical spine soft tissues (cervical trauma) is very common in patients with CCT which is caused by excessive and sudden movements of the neck after hitting the skull. Cervical trauma can be associated with sprain of muscles, ligaments and joints of the spine, minor haemorrhage and swelling of muscles. These symptoms can occur immediately after the trauma or within a few days, a patient suffer from pain, restricted movements in cervical spine, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, lurching walk. A doctor can find a cause of these symptoms and after some examination (after cervical spine x-ray with functional tests in particular) he can advise a patient to consult a chiropractic and to wear a cervical collar within some time, prescribe non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, medicinal products relieving muscle spasms.

In long-term period psycho-emotional disorders are observed in patients with CCT. Marked asthenic syndrome (reduced productivity, rapid fatigue, general weakness, mood swings, tearfulness), mood disorders (anxiety, fear, depression) are common, autonomic dysfunction syndrome is also possible. In such cases it is recommended to administer anti-asthenic drugs focused on correction of these symptoms, sedatives can treat anxiety and fears. Different methods of relaxation, self-control that can be taught by a psychotherapist are also helpful. It is useful to be in the open air, to arrange your place of work properly, to take breaks every 1–1.5 hours. Restful sleep (at least 8–9 hours) is essential, a place of rest should be comfortable, a room should be aired frequently and cleaned regularly. Regular physical exercises and massage courses can also have a good effect in such cases.

In case of post-traumatic epilepsy a patient should be observed by an epileptologist; chronic administration of antiepileptic agents can be necessary in such cases.

Post-traumatic encephalopathy is also a common long-term complication of CCT. In such cases recommendations are similar to those in “Chronic brain ischemia” and “Encephalopathy”. Neurometabolic and vasoactive agents should be taken at least 2–4 times a year. Patients should eat food rich in vitamins and microelements, diverse, containing lots of proteins, polyunsaturated fats and complex carbohydrates.

In case of memory and focus disorders it is recommended to learn poems and text fragments by heart, to do crossword puzzles and to solve logic problems. It is convenient to make notes about important tasks and events.

In case of severe complications of CCT such as paralyses, marked dizziness, falls, etc., patient’s everyday life should be properly organized: furniture should be placed along the perimeter of the room so that nothing can prevent the patient from moving and be a threat if he falls down; floor coverings should be fixed. The patient should walk with support, if necessary, and wear comfortable shoes.

K. R. Badalyan

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Additional Professional Education

of Pirogov Russian National Research Medical

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