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GEROPHARM pays considerable attention to the regulation of drug safety. Currently, the company has the pharmacovigilance system which functions in accordance with international requirements and regulatory requirements for the Russian Federation. Employees collect data on the found adverse reactions that occur when taking medicinal preparations, the marketing authorization holder of which is GEROPHARM.

Some symptoms are used to determine the involvement of the spinal cord and brain in the infectious and inflammatory process. They are always a reason for visiting a doctor.

Meningeal symptoms based on reflex muscle strain result from the meningeal irritation. The following signs are the most important ones:

  • Almost constant rigidity of the cervical muscles at the early stage. Rigidity is present when a doctor places his hand at the back of the patient’s head and tries to produce passive head flexion bringing the chin toward the chest. Resistance occurs when protractors are strained, an attempt to overcome the resistance leads to pain

  • In severe meningitis, head is bent back, abdomen is retracted, the anterior abdominal wall is tense, legs approach the abdomen, opisthotonus is observed

  • Kernig's symptom is rare. The patient is in the supine position. His leg is flexed in the hip and knee joint to form a right angle. Passive knee extension is impossible as the posterior group of thigh muscles are strained and the patient feels pain in the bag and leg

  • Trism (a painful spasm) of the chewing muscles, zygomatic Bechterew's symptom (local tenderness when tapping on the zygomatic arch), tenderness of the eyeballs when they are pressed or move, skin hyperesthesia, hypersensitivity to noise, loud talking, odours. The patients prefer to lay still in a dark room with their eyes closed
  • Infants have exertion and bulging of the anterior fontanel, Lesage hanging sign: when the child is lifted from under his armpits, he pulls up his legs involuntarily by flexing them in the hip and knee joints

K. R. Badalyan

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Additional Professional Education

of Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University

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