Rus Eng

Myopia

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What is myopia?

Progression of myopia to a high degree (30–40.0 D ) may be accompanied by retinal changes and significant vision impairment. The myopia is called malignant or myopic disease (gravis myopia).

What is the cause of myopia?

Progressive myopia can be considered as a multifactorial disease. Different variations both in body condition and in the eye matter in various moments of life. High degree progressive myopia can result from a combination of low accommodation and stretched sclera (most frequently observed in patients with inherited myopia).

How is myopia manifested?

Myopia causes elongated eyes. Overstretching of the posterior pole of the sclera results in dystrophic fundus changes, myopic crescent. With a high degree of myopia, protrusions of the posterior pole of the eye are formed. Then degenerative changes appear in the retina in the form of white polymorphic lesions with pigment clumps among themselves. The eyeball is discolored, hemorrhages appear. These changes are called myopic chorioretinal dystrophy. Chorioretinal dystrophies are often the reason for retinal rupture and detachment.

When the phenomena appear in the central retinal part (macula), vision acuity is significantly decreased. Apart from a decrease in vision acuity, the patients often complain of a distorted form or size of the objects (metamorphopsia).

People with a high degree myopia often complain of ‘flying flies’. It means that dystrophic changes develop inside the vitreous body when its structure is changed and conglomerates in the form of flies, threads, and webs are noticeable.

How is myopia treated?

First of all, vision must be corrected using spectacles or contact lenses. Accommodation capacity of the eye needs to be normalized. For this, mydriatics are given for 1–1.5 months before going to bed (when visual workload is the greatest).

Emoxipine, Histochrom and Retinalamin are used to improve the retinal function.

Sclera-fortifying collagenoplasty is done. In 90–95 % of cases, it completely stops myopia progression or decreases the yearly gradient of its progression (up to 0.1 D per year).



O. V. Zaitseva

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Senior Research Scientist of the Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases

Patients with myopia shall pay attention to suddenly progressing vision acuity, occurrence of dimouts or flash lights. It can be a developing or developed retinal detachment. In this case refer to a doctor immediately to improve the chance for eyesight recovery.

Avoid weight lifting and heavy physical activity. Physical activities lead to the rupture of thin vascular membrane and retina in patients with high myopia.

To prevent further decrease in vision acuity, it is recommended as follows:

  • do eye gymnastics after every 20 minutes of concentrated work;
  • avoid heavy eye strain;
  • ensure proper workplace illumination;
  • spend less time in front of a computer;
  • visit an ophthalmologist regularly;
  • follow all doctor’s recommendations.


O. V. Zaitseva

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Senior Research Scientist of the Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases

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